Stem cell and the regenerative medicine: Ready for the patients?

Stem cell and the regenerative medicine: Ready for the patients?

MSC: Mesenchymal stem cells, HSC: Hematopoietic stem cells,
RBC: Red blood cells, NSC: Neural stem cells, EpSC: Epidermal stem cells


Stem cells

Stem cells are able to self-renew, indefinitely dividing and generating exact copies of themselves. Under the right condition, they can be differentiated virtually into any kind of specialized cell progeny which are able to function properly or replace wounded tissues in our body. Stem cells come in different types and shapes, each play a distinct role in our body as we grow and develop. Although some exist in a narrow window during development, most others are found in specific part of the body during our lifetime. Generally, stem cells can be categorized into three different groups:

1. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs): A totipotent population extracted from embryo which are able to differentiate into all specialized cell types in our body.

2. Somatic stem cells: Multipotent or unipotent population that are only able to give rise to limited lineage of specialized cells.

3. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs): Pluripotent cell population generated by artificially inserting several genes into somatic cells.


Stem cell differentiation

The process of stem cell differentiation is a highly organized and unidirectional process. A totipotent stem cell is able to different into 3 different germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm) and primordial germ cells. Multipotent stem cells are then differentiated from these germ layers in an orderly manner. For example, ectoderm makes neural stem cells and epidermal stem cells; endoderm produces hepatic and pancreatic stem cells; mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells are developed form the mesoderm. Given the high degree of plasticity, scientists have been putting extra effort in understanding the mechanism of stem cell differentiation, so that the process of directed differentiation can be optimized in order to give rise to usable materials in stem cell therapy.


Regenerative medicine research

Science and technology advancement are bringing regenerative medicine closer to reality. We constantly hear about breakthroughs that provide promising alternatives to combat injuries, diseases and aging. For example, offspring from oocytes generated by ESCs or iPSCs was successfully born, offering hopes for curing infertility (Hayashi et al). In a recent report, scientists found a way to make red blood cells by knocking out SH2B3 gene in Hematopoietic Stem Cells using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, potentially putting an end to short supply in blood banks (Giani et al). These news are exciting, but why are stem cells therapies not widely implemented yet? The process of drug development is long and technically demanding to ensure safety and effectiveness of these drugs before they are approved in clinical trials. Generally, it takes 15 to 20 years before a new treatment is made available in the clinic. In fact, most ideas do not even become approved treatments. Nonetheless, researchers continue to hinge on learning the fundamentals of biological process in view of inventing better regenerative medicine for patients. These include better understanding the cause and progression of diseases, creating new technologies to accelerate drug discovery, and developing creative methods to enhance directed differentiation of stem cells.

Martin Evans. (2011) Nat Rev Mol Cel Biol 12: 680-686
Hayashi et al. (2012) Science 338: 971-975
Giani et al. (2015) Cell Stem Cell. In press.
Jopling et al. (2011) Nat Rev Mol Cel Biol 12: 79-89

arigo offers superior stem cell or differentiation marker antibodies for the stem cell research community :

Stem Cell Marker

  Target arigo Cat. Host Clone no. Applications
Stem Cell
SOX2 ARG53588 Rb SP76 IHC, WB
OCT4 ARG53393 Rb   IHC
SSEA3 ARG20019 Rat MC-631 FACS, IHC, IP, WB
SSEA4 ARG20023 Ms MC-813-70 FACS, IHC, IP, WB

Differentiation Marker

  Target arigo Cat. Host Clone no. Applications
Ectoderm Early Ectoderm TujI ARG62683 Ms TU-20 FACS, IF, IHC, WB
NESTIN ARG52345 Ms 4D11 IF, WB
PAX6 ARG55204 Rb   WB, IF
Neural stem cells CD56 (PE-conjugated) ARG53878 Ms MEM-188 FACS, IHC, IP
CD56 (FITC-conjugated) ARG62895 Ms MEM-188 FACS, IHC, IP
CD133 ARG54138 Ms 6H10-F1-C11 WB
Epidermic stem cells Cytokeratin 19 ARG62978 Ms BA-17 FACS, IF, IHC, IP, WB
CD29 (PE-conjugated) ARG53817 Ms MEM-101A FACS, IP, WB
CD29 (FITC-conjugated) ARG62799 Ms MEM-101A FACS, IP, WB
Cytokeratin 14 ARG53180 Rb SP53 IHC, WB, FACS
Neuron NeuN ARG52283 Ms 1B7 IF, IHC, WB
  Target arigo Cat. Host Clone no. Applications
Endoderm Early Endoderm AFP ARG62669 Ms AFP-01 ELISA, IF, IP, WB
  Target arigo Cat. Host Clone no. Applications
Mesoderm Early Mesoderm SMA ARG53568 Rb   IHC
BMP2 ARG20386 Rb   WB
stem cells
CD44 (PE-conjugated) ARG53852 Ms MEM-85 ELISA, FACS, IP, WB
CD44 (FITC-conjugated) ARG62853 Ms MEM-85 ELISA, FACS, IP, WB
CD45 (PE-conjugated) ARG53855 Ms MEM-28 FACS, IF, IHC, IP, WB
CD45 (FITC-conjugated) ARG62857 Ms MEM-28 FACS, IF, IHC, IP, WB
CD73 (PE-conjugated) ARG55406 Ms AD2 FACS
CD73 (FITC-conjugated) ARG55405 Ms AD2 FACS
CD90 (PE-conjugated) ARG54208 Ms 5E10 FACS, IP, WB, IHC, IF
CD90 (FITC-conjugated) ARG65400 Ms 5E10 FACS, IP, WB, IHC, IF
CD105 (PE-conjugated) ARG53754 Ms MEM-226 FACS, IP, WB
CD105 (FITC-conjugated) ARG62701 Ms MEM-226 FACS, IP, WB
stem cells
CD34 (PE-conjugated) ARG55401 Ms 581 FACS, IHC
CD34 (FITC-conjugated) ARG55402 Ms 581 FACS, IHC
CD133 ARG54138 Ms 6H10-F1-C11 WB
ABCG2/CD338 ARG51346 Rb   WB
  Target arigo Cat. Host Clone no. Applications
Primordial germ cells C-KIT ARG65364 Ms 104D2 FACS, IF, IHC, IP
GDF3 ARG20405 Rb   WB
DAZL ARG63869 Gt   WB, IHC